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In the Spark shell, a special interpreter-aware SparkContext is already created for you, in thevariable called sc. Making your own SparkContext will not work. You can set which master thecontext connects to using the --master argument, and you can add JARs to the classpathby passing a comma-separated list to the --jars argument. You can also add dependencies(e.g. Spark Packages) to your shell session by supplying a comma-separated list of Maven coordinatesto the --packages argument. Any additional repositories where dependencies might exist (e.g. Sonatype)can be passed to the --repositories argument. For example, to run bin/spark-shell on exactlyfour cores, use:




Search results for spark 3



In the PySpark shell, a special interpreter-aware SparkContext is already created for you, in thevariable called sc. Making your own SparkContext will not work. You can set which master thecontext connects to using the --master argument, and you can add Python .zip, .egg or .py filesto the runtime path by passing a comma-separated list to --py-files. For third-party Python dependencies,see Python Package Management. You can also add dependencies(e.g. Spark Packages) to your shell session by supplying a comma-separated list of Maven coordinatesto the --packages argument. Any additional repositories where dependencies might exist (e.g. Sonatype)can be passed to the --repositories argument. For example, to runbin/pyspark on exactly four cores, use:


It is also possible to launch the PySpark shell in IPython, theenhanced Python interpreter. PySpark works with IPython 1.0.0 and later. Touse IPython, set the PYSPARK_DRIVER_PYTHON variable to ipython when running bin/pyspark:


RDDs support two types of operations: transformations, which create a new dataset from an existing one, and actions, which return a value to the driver program after running a computation on the dataset. For example, map is a transformation that passes each dataset element through a function and returns a new RDD representing the results. On the other hand, reduce is an action that aggregates all the elements of the RDD using some function and returns the final result to the driver program (although there is also a parallel reduceByKey that returns a distributed dataset).


All transformations in Spark are lazy, in that they do not compute their results right away. Instead, they just remember the transformations applied to some base dataset (e.g. a file). The transformations are only computed when an action requires a result to be returned to the driver program. This design enables Spark to run more efficiently. For example, we can realize that a dataset created through map will be used in a reduce and return only the result of the reduce to the driver, rather than the larger mapped dataset.


Consider the naive RDD element sum below, which may behave differently depending on whether execution is happening within the same JVM. A common example of this is when running Spark in local mode (--master = local[n]) versus deploying a Spark application to a cluster (e.g. via spark-submit to YARN):


The application submission guide describes how to submit applications to a cluster.In short, once you package your application into a JAR (for Java/Scala) or a set of .py or .zip files (for Python),the bin/spark-submit script lets you submit it to any supported cluster manager.


cardinality(expr) - Returns the size of an array or a map.The function returns null for null input if spark.sql.legacy.sizeOfNull is set to false orspark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to true. Otherwise, the function returns -1 for null input.With the default settings, the function returns -1 for null input.


decode(expr, search, result [, search, result ] ... [, default]) - Compares exprto each search value in order. If expr is equal to a search value, decode returnsthe corresponding result. If no match is found, then it returns default. If defaultis omitted, it returns null.


element_at(array, index) - Returns element of array at given (1-based) index. If Index is 0,Spark will throw an error. If index


element_at(map, key) - Returns value for given key. The function returns NULLif the key is not contained in the map and spark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to false.If spark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to true, it throws NoSuchElementException instead.


elt(n, input1, input2, ...) - Returns the n-th input, e.g., returns input2 when n is 2.The function returns NULL if the index exceeds the length of the arrayand spark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to false. If spark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to true,it throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException for invalid indices.


make_date(year, month, day) - Create date from year, month and day fields. If the configuration spark.sql.ansi.enabled is false, the function returns NULL on invalid inputs. Otherwise, it will throw an error instead.


make_timestamp(year, month, day, hour, min, sec[, timezone]) - Create timestamp from year, month, day, hour, min, sec and timezone fields. The result data type is consistent with the value of configuration spark.sql.timestampType. If the configuration spark.sql.ansi.enabled is false, the function returns NULL on invalid inputs. Otherwise, it will throw an error instead.


next_day(start_date, day_of_week) - Returns the first date which is later than start_date and named as indicated.The function returns NULL if at least one of the input parameters is NULL.When both of the input parameters are not NULL and day_of_week is an invalid input,the function throws IllegalArgumentException if spark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to true, otherwise NULL.


There is a SQL config 'spark.sql.parser.escapedStringLiterals' that can be used tofallback to the Spark 1.6 behavior regarding string literal parsing. For example,if the config is enabled, the regexp that can match "\abc" is "^\abc$".


size(expr) - Returns the size of an array or a map.The function returns null for null input if spark.sql.legacy.sizeOfNull is set to false orspark.sql.ansi.enabled is set to true. Otherwise, the function returns -1 for null input.With the default settings, the function returns -1 for null input.


substring_index(str, delim, count) - Returns the substring from str before count occurrences of the delimiter delim.If count is positive, everything to the left of the final delimiter (counting from theleft) is returned. If count is negative, everything to the right of the final delimiter(counting from the right) is returned. The function substring_index performs a case-sensitive matchwhen searching for delim.


to_timestamp(timestamp_str[, fmt]) - Parses the timestamp_str expression with the fmt expressionto a timestamp. Returns null with invalid input. By default, it follows casting rules toa timestamp if the fmt is omitted. The result data type is consistent with the value ofconfiguration spark.sql.timestampType.


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This guide provides a quick peek at Hudi's capabilities using spark-shell. Using Spark datasources, we will walk throughcode snippets that allows you to insert and update a Hudi table of default table type:Copy on Write. After each write operation we will also show how to read thedata both snapshot and incrementally.


You can also do the quickstart by building hudi yourself,and using --jars /packaging/hudi-spark-bundle/target/hudi-spark3.2-bundle_2.1?-*.*.*-SNAPSHOT.jar in the spark-shell command aboveinstead of --packages org.apache.hudi:hudi-spark3.2-bundle_2.12:0.13.0. Hudi also supports scala 2.12. Refer build with scala 2.12for more info.


Spark provides fast iterative/functional-like capabilities over large data sets, typically by caching data in memory. As opposed to the rest of the libraries mentioned in this documentation, Apache Spark is computing framework that is not tied to Map/Reduce itself however it does integrate with Hadoop, mainly to HDFS.elasticsearch-hadoop allows Elasticsearch to be used in Spark in two ways: through the dedicated support available since 2.1 or through the Map/Reduce bridge since 2.0. Spark 2.0 is supported in elasticsearch-hadoop since version 5.0


elasticsearch-hadoop provides native integration between Elasticsearch and Apache Spark, in the form of an RDD (Resilient Distributed Dataset) (or Pair RDD to be precise) that can read data from Elasticsearch. The RDD is offered in two flavors: one for Scala (which returns the data as Tuple2 with Scala collections) and one for Java (which returns the data as Tuple2 containing java.util collections).


Command-lineFor those that want to set the properties through the command-line (either directly or by loading them from a file), note that Spark only accepts those that start with the "spark." prefix and will ignore the rest (and depending on the version a warning might be thrown). To work around this limitation, define the elasticsearch-hadoop properties by appending the spark. prefix (thus they become spark.es.) and elasticsearch-hadoop will automatically resolve them:


With elasticsearch-hadoop, any RDD can be saved to Elasticsearch as long as its content can be translated into documents. In practice this means the RDD type needs to be a Map (whether a Scala or a Java one), a JavaBean or a Scala case class. When that is not the case, one can easily transform the datain Spark or plug-in their own custom ValueWriter. 041b061a72


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